OOPS concepts in Java

OOPS concepts in Java

The concepts of OOP in Java are the main ideas behind Java object-oriented programming. They are an abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance and polymorphism. Grabbing them is essential to understand how Java works. Basically, Java OOP concepts allow us to create methods and work variables, and then reuse all or part of them without compromising security.Here are the list of OOPS concepts in Java.

List of OOP concepts in Java

There are four main concepts of OOP in Java. Those are:

  • Abstraction. Abstraction means using simple things to represent complexity. We all know how to connect TV, but we do not need to know how it works to take advantage. In Java, abstraction means that simple things like objects, classes and variables represent more complex underlying codes and data. This is important because it avoids repeating the same job several times.
  • Encapsulation. This is the practice of keeping the fields within a private class and then providing access to them through public methods. It is a protective barrier that keeps data and code safe within the class itself. In this way, we can reuse objects as code components or variables without allowing open access to the entire data system.
  • Inheritance. This is a special feature of object-oriented programming in Java. It allows programmers to create new classes that share some of the attributes of existing classes. This allows us to build the previous work without reinventing the wheel.
  • Polymorphism. This Java OOP concept allows programmers to use the same word to mean different things in different contexts. One form of polymorphism in Java is the overload of methods. It is when different meanings are implicit in the code itself. The other way is the substitution of methods. It is when the different meanings are implicit in the values ​​of the variables provided. See more about this below.

How OOP concepts work in Java

OOP, the concepts in Java work by allowing programmers to create components that can be reused in different ways, but still maintain security.

How abstraction works

Abstraction as an OOP concept in Java works by allowing programmers to create useful and reusable tools. For example, a programmer can create several different types of objects. These can be variables, functions or data structures. Programmers can also create different kinds of objects. These are the ways to define the objects.

For example, a variable class can be an address. The class can specify that each address object must have a name, street, city and zip code. The objects, in this case, can be employee addresses, customer addresses or supplier addresses.

How the encapsulation works

The encapsulation allows us to reuse functionality without compromising security. It’s a powerful OOP concept in Java because it helps us save a lot of time. For example, we can create a part of the code that calls specific data from a database. It may be useful to reuse this code with other databases or processes. The encapsulation allows us to do this while keeping our original data secret. It also allows us to change our original code without breaking it for other people who adopted it at that time.

How inheritance works

Inheritance is another Java OOP concept that saves labor. It works by allowing one new class to adopt the properties of another. We call the class inherited from a subclass or from a daughter class. The original class is often called father. We use the keyword to define a new class that inherits the properties of an old class.

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How polymorphism works

The polymorphism in Java works by using a reference to a parent class to affect an object in the child class. We can create a class called “horse”, extending the “animal” class. This class can also implement the “professional career” class. The “horse” class is “polymorphic”, since it inherits the attributes of the “animal” and “professional” class.

Two other examples of polymorphism in Java are method substitution and method overload.

In the substitution method, the secondary class can use the concept of OOP polymorphism to replace a method of its class

In the method overriding, the child class can use the concept of OOP polymorphism to replace a method of its parent class. This allows a programmer to use a method in different ways, depending on whether it is invoked by an object in the primary class or by an object in the child class.

In method overloading,  a single method can perform different functions depending on the context in which it is called. That is, a single method name can work in different ways, depending on what arguments are passed to it.

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Best practices for OOP concepts in Java

As the goal of OOP concepts in Java is to save time without sacrificing security and ease of use, best practices are all geared toward advancing that main goal.

  • DRY (Don’t Repeat Yourself). This is the central concept in Java. You should never have two blocks of identical code in two different places. Instead, use a method for different applications.
  • If you expect your Java code to change in the future, encapsulate it, making all variables and methods private from the beginning. As the code changes, increase access to “protected” as necessary, but not very public.
  • Single Responsibility. Another recommended practice for Java OOP concepts is the Principle of Single Responsibility. Simplifying, a class must always have only one functionality. In this way, it can be called and / or extended only when new uses arise for it, without causing coupling between different functionalities.
  • Open Closed Design. Make all methods and classes closed for modification, but open an extension. In this way, the tested and tested code can remain static, but can be modified to perform new tasks as necessary.

 

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