Introduction to Struts

Introduction to Struts

Struts Framework is the product of the Apache software base, which is basically used for the development of web applications in Java.Of the three editions of Java – JSE, JEE and JME, the struts framework resides in the middle layer (ie Java Enterprise Edition – JEE).As this structure is provided by Apache, it is also known as Apache Struts or Jakarta Struts. It was originally known as WebWork framework.

Definition: Struts is an invasive, extensible and portable structure that is mainly used for software development, web application development, application maintenance, application implementation, etc.

Why use frames?

Using frameworks makes a programmer, easy code.

For example, if you want to create an application such as the bank’s management system, you must first meet all the requirements, focus on the design of the bank’s management system (including the login page, show the account information, withdraw the form, form, loan form, etc.). Once the design phase is finished, you will have to start translating the designs into a programming language, that is, you will have to start implementing them. Think about writing each task (module) independently. This obviously seems very tedious and there is no way to test a single module until the entire project collaborates in the end.

The main advantage of the use of framework is that while you are implementing the project, certain predefined modules are available and you can import by adding only a few lines of code.

For example, in Hibernate Framework Session and SessionFactory, objects are created automatically at the time of the implementation of the web application. In addition, persistent objects, such as Transaction and Query, also help in direct communication with the database as objects and not as values. This concept is very advantageous, because since Java is an object-oriented programming language, the conversion of database values to objects and vice versa helps to facilitate communication with Java objects in web applications.

Similarly, in the Struts Framework, there is ease of communication between data layer (Model), business logic can be easily implemented using Interceptors (ActionServlets), Validation can be implemented automatically, download and upload files has direct implementation, etc. .Frameworks are used to make programmers focus more on business logic, rather than showing modules or manipulating databases.

Why use Struts?

In the case of a Java object, the user may not be in the database in one unit.The structure, therefore, results in a very fast and efficient development of web applications with database integrity and security.The structure creates applications that are flexible in nature, can be extended and modified easily without making changes to the real business logic.An input form validation is activated by default in Struts. Validation properties are requested from the programmer at the time of creation.Each time a new java class is created, the class gets its resources automatically included in the xml configuration file. This facilitates the programmer because a large number of classes must be created for a web application.

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Advantages of the Struts:

  • Struts facilitates the development of web applications.
  • The framework is open source and is available for free.
  • The capabilities of the JSP API are included in the Struts framework
  • It is very easy to use an embedded module – just inherit the properties by subclassing the java class.
  • The JSTL (JSP Standard Tag Library) provides custom label creation features in Struts. These tags help programmers easily implement business logic by adding attributes to labels according to the requirement.
  • The XML configuration files are created automatically for the classes. Each time a new class is created, its configuration is added to the XML file.
  • The images can be easily processed in the Struts Framework. There is a separate module that handles image processing very efficiently.
  • Struts has an extension for the jQuery plugin (to provide functionality for the AJAX + user interface facilities such as table grid, tree, panel, graphics and graphics).
  • Struts structures also have extension for JSF (Java Server Faces).
  • Struts has extension for the Junit plugin (this plugin is used for testing purposes).
  • The Hibernate extension is also available with version 2 of the Struts framework.

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Characteristics of the Struts

  • Open Source Framework
  • The design architecture of the Struts framework is based on the JSP Model 2 architecture. Thus, existing JSP applications can be extended by changing model 1 to the architecture of model 2.
  • Custom labels: the advanced set of JSTL custom labels helps programmers expand existing functionality.
  • Better performance of Format classes, such as NumberFormat, DateFormat, EmailFormat etc.
  • Incorporation of AJAX: makes applications more dynamic.
  • The use of annotations can minimize the XML mapping code.
  • The Struts can be extended for use in the spring frame as well.
  • The structure is connectable, which means that the flow of the application is flexible.
  • There is an easy conversion of HTML form data (HTTP data) to basic Java objects. Because of this feature, all data in the HTTP form can be manipulated through Java functionality. The resource is known as type conversion.
  • The exception handling is easy in the Struts framework. (for example: with <html: error> tag). In addition, custom exceptions can be declared, accounted for and easily captured.


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